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Understanding the systemic shift from digitization to tokenization of financial services

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The financial industry has seen a rise in demand for exposure to digital — and crypto — assets in all asset classes. This has led to interest, demand and investment from institutional finance, ranging from digital asset custody to digital asset trading desks, regulatory and compliance frameworks, and audit and risk models. 

It is fair to say that digital assets have taken the financial services industry by storm. While the attention and investment from traditional finance in decentralized finance (DeFi) is hailed as a progressive step, there are enormous challenges and hurdles that financial services and institutions need to consider to make digital asset adoption mainstream.

Related: Why institutions suddenly give a damn about Bitcoin

For one thing, the industry is on a massive digitization path to modernize aging financial systems that are reliant on a ledger-based transaction system. It must ensure that the path to digitization is smooth, minimally disruptive and brings the financial system that moves assets and payments to the speed of the digital era, keeping up with digital commerce and digital delivery of services.

These efforts have brought innovation with application programming interfaces (APIs) to support new business models. These strategic APIs not only take the shape of digital products and services but also of co-creation vehicles to deliver value to the consumer and financial services ecosystem. The industry has seen a growth of full lifecycle API management as a glue to secure businesses and expose services at the same time, which shifts the IT focus from projects to strategic APIs.

Lately, the approach has involved financial technology — or fintech — partnerships and/or modernizing technology. It has focused on user experience and the API, with little attention to the systemic elements of the financial services industry, such as payment, treasury, risk models, fraud, regulatory and compliance, to name a few. While the user experience approach has achieved some success, the deficiencies have surfaced for legacy design parts of tightly coupled designs. The use cases that manifest as a financial application eventually catch up with the financial systems’ limitations, and assets locked in the ledger and reliant on the relay of batch processes to move assets.

Related: DeFi needs real-world adoption, not just disruptive pioneering

So, how does a financial institution manage these two drastically different models in tandem as the industry evolves in a complex transformation with a disruptive twist? On one hand, the digitization effort focuses on a ledger-based model, which is largely the existing infrastructure, while on the other hand, the disruptive twist promotes a token-based model, which challenges and negates the current digitization efforts. How do financial institutions manage the delicate balance in which two worlds can coexist and provide a seamless, singular experience?

Related: CeFi and DeFi will finally meet in 2021 — Let’s hope they hit it off

Understanding digitization and fintech-led disruption

The financial services industry is in a constant state of flux, including recent radical shifts. The industry has been a witness to many previous ground-shifting eras, including the introduction of computing into banking systems, anytime-banking with ATMs, and the internet and mobile technology shifting the mindset to “anytime, anywhere.”

Today, the financial services industry is largely focused on massive digitization efforts with initiatives such as open banking, Payment Services Directive-2 (PSD 2), strong customer authentication (SCA) and ISO 20022 for payment harmonization and modernization. Many of these digitization efforts are industry-led, and some are driven as a result of a regulatory directive. They are efforts to stay competitive and meet customer demands for instant, real-time movement of assets and digital fiat as settlement instruments.

Related: Europe awaits implementation of regulatory framework for crypto assets

The challenges the financial services industry faces are immense, including constant shifts in the regulatory landscape, customer expectations of digital natives, the need for real-time and around-the-clock operations to service clients’ requests, and ecosystems’ exogenous factors that are creating interesting technology engine struggles for financial institutions. The legacy infrastructure, which represents both significant investment and past modernization journeys, is now impeding the speed and scale required to unlock the digital value of not only products and services but also of the entirety of the financial institution itself.

Related: Stablecoins present new dilemmas for regulators as mass adoption looms

With the emergence of every significant change, the financial services industry has been able to adapt and withstand the disruption. The movement led by fintech is another major shift, underpinned by radically different business models that are led by new innovative technologies, business structures and the digitization of adjacent and consumer experience in every segment of digital business and engagement. This shift — coupled with mounting regulation, compliance pressures and disruption from the fintech ecosystem — is forcing the established financial services industry to rethink innovation and business models. This is to keep systems competitive, innovative and malleable for future disruptive shifts that may occur — like DeFi driven by tokenization.

Related: Tokenization of assets is not taking off, but it really should

Understanding the implications of asset tokenization

We have established that digitization is the first step in many enterprise and permissionless blockchain projects. Tokenization is the process of converting or claiming an asset and rights into a digital representation, or token, on a blockchain network. At this time, it may be prudent to draw a distinction between a (crypto) asset or currency and a tokenized asset.

A (crypto) asset or currency is a medium of exchange or a protocol-driven exchange mechanism that often embodies the same characteristics as a real-world currency — such as durability, limited supply and recognition by a network — while being backed by a common belief system, such as a fiat currency. A (crypto) asset or currency also represents a byproduct of trust systems, or consensus, as a vehicle to back the incentive economic model that rewards and fuels the trust system of a network, making it a trust currency of the network. A token, on the other hand, can be many things: a digital representation of a physical good, making it a digital twin, or a layer-two protocol that rides on the (crypto) asset or currency and represents a unit of value.

This distinction between a (crypto) asset or currency and a tokenized asset is important for understanding the exchange vehicles, valuation models and fungibility across various value networks that are emerging and posing challenges around interoperability. The challenges are not just technical, but also business challenges around equitable swaps. Tokenization of assets can lead to the creation of a business model that fuels fractional ownership or the ability to own an instance of a large asset. The promised asset tokenization on blockchain-based business networks is not just digitization or a solution to the inefficiencies of time and trust; it also creates new business models and co-creations from synergies of network participants that did not exist before.

While blockchain itself provides the technology constructs to facilitate exchange, ownership and trust in the network, it is in the digitization of value elements where asset tokenization is essential. In essence, digitization is sort of a prerequisite to tokenization. In the financial services context, digitization of existing services and token-driven DeFi present two parallel business streams, which will converge as the industry aims to provide a unified user experience.

Tokenization implies that account management and claims on assets are driven by cryptographic keys, as opposed to account management and asset management by a system operator called a bank. Though tokenization is more than just account management and claims to an asset, it enables divisibility, fungibility and disintermediated business functions, such as asset transfer. It is a fundamental building block and prerequisite for an “internet of value.”

Opinion

The answer to the question How does a financial institution manage the delicate balance in which two worlds can coexist and provide a seamless and singular experience? is a complicated one. Adequate thought needs to be given to the operational structure that encompasses the complexity of existing structures, while also encapsulating the exponential growth (and complexity) of a digital asset ecosystem. That presents both a monumental operational challenge and as a massive opportunity landscape and avenue to embark on new business models.

It is widely understood and accepted that blockchain technology lays the foundation for a trusted digital transactional network that, as a disintermediated platform, fuels the growth of marketplaces and secondary markets due to new synergies and co-creation due to new digital interactions and value-exchange mechanisms.

Open banking has led the digitization efforts with a raft of open APIs. These APIs can be extended to tokenized asset structures and turn the entire business process of various DeFi market structures into consumable units, where various asset classes, marketplaces and DeFi support services can be stitched into a singular experience hiding the transactional complexity.

This article does not contain investment advice or recommendations. Every investment and trading move involves risk, and readers should conduct their own research when making a decision.

The views, thoughts and opinions expressed here are the author’s alone and do not necessarily reflect or represent the views and opinions of Cointelegraph.

Nitin Gaur is the founder and director of IBM Digital Asset Labs, where he devises industry standards and use cases and works toward making blockchain for the enterprise a reality. He previously served as chief technology officer of IBM World Wire and of IBM Mobile Payments and Enterprise Mobile Solutions, and he founded IBM Blockchain Labs where he led the effort in establishing the blockchain practice for the enterprise. Gaur is also an IBM distinguished engineer and an IBM master inventor with a rich patent portfolio. Additionally, he serves as research and portfolio manager for Portal Asset Management, a multi-manager fund specializing in digital assets and DeFi investment strategies.

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Source: https://cointelegraph.com/news/understanding-the-systemic-shift-from-digitization-to-tokenization-of-financial-services

Blockchain

Jack Dorsey’s TBD Presents Whitepaper For Decentralized Bitcoin Exchange

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The first product of the Bitcoin-focused TBD will be tbDEX. A decentralized exchange that they deem “A Liquidity Protocol” in the recently released whitepaper. The Bitcoin network is permissionless, anyone with an Internet connection can jump in at any time. However, the Fiat world we live in is not. The banking system has endless requirements for participation, and those leave a high percentage of the population bankless and vulnerable. “We believe that the economy should be inclusive. We need to build on-ramps to this future where everyone can access and participate in the economy,” says TBD in the post that announces tbDEX.

Related Reading | Jack Dorsey: Square Could Build Bitcoin Mining System

A subsidiary of Jack Dorsey’s Square, they created TBD “with the sole goal of making it easy to create non-custodial, permissionless, and decentralized financial services” for Bitcoin. And now, they have a plan. 

What Is TBD ‘s Value Proposition?

The tbDEX aims “to build bridges between the fiat and cryptocurrency worlds,” that much is clear. We still live in a Fiat world and, if Bitcoin is going to succeed, we need new, simpler, and cheaper ways to interact with said world. “There are serious challenges to realizing this vision. Fiat rails are regulated, and no interface with either the traditional monetary system or “real world” can be completely trustless.” 

So, what solution does TBD proposes? The tbDEX will allow participants to interact and transact with each other like Bisq and similar projects. However, TBD will also let users “mutually and voluntarily rely on trusted third-parties to vouch for the counterparty.” In the whitepaper itself, TBD contemplates that Participating Financial Institutions or PFIs will be part of the network. 

“PFIs can be, but are not limited to, fintech companies, regional banks, large institutional banks, or other financial institutions; PFIs have access to fiat payment systems and the ability to facilitate fiat payments in exchange for tokenized cryptocurrency assets or vice versa.”

The tbDEX will provide financial institutions with tools for KYC and AML procedures:

“The protocol will also carry the required regulatory-clearing information required by PFIs to conduct their AML and KYC checks before they provision liquidity to the wallet owner. However, the necessary information may vary based on the jurisdiction.”

Wait a minute… a decentralized exchange that requires KYC? What would be the point of that? Well, the protocol doesn’t require KYC procedures, but some institutions might. The good news is, participants don’t have to deal with those institutions if they don’t want to. They can just interact with each other and establish trust in other ways. 

BTCUSD price chart for 11/20/2021 - TradingView

BTC price chart for 11/20/2021 on FX | Source: BTC/USD on TradingView.com

The Cost Of Anonymity

This is where it gets interesting. According to the whitepaper:

“The tbDEX protocol facilitates decentralized networks of exchange between assets by providing a framework for establishing social trust, utilizing decentralized identity (DID) and verifiable credentials (VCs) to establish the provenance of identity in the real world.”

It’s important to notice that “the protocol itself neither collects nor records any personally identifiable information.” However, if a participant wants anonymity it’s his or her responsibility to optimize for it. Once again, the whitepaper: 

“Our goal is not to maintain anonymity of transactions at all costs. Nor is it to undermine an individual’s ability to optimize for anonymity. Nothing in principle precludes anonymous transactions for financial privacy on the tbDEX network. A PFI could, in principle, require no VCs, but such transactions would represent a high degree of risk to the counterparties.” 

To assume that risk costs money. It’s as simple as that. The announcement post puts it nicely.

“Transaction costs are ultimately driven by risk. At maximum anonymity, transaction costs will necessarily be higher; at maximum disclosure, they should be lower. This approach to price discovery allows the marketplace to find the right balance.”  

Related Reading | Is Hyperinflation Inevitable? Jack Dorsey Says It’ll “Change Everything”

If You Have A Suggestion, Send It To TBD

The whitepaper is a rough outline of that tbDEX will eventually be.

“This initial draft of the whitepaper is meant to establish a conceptual understanding of the high-level design of the proposed tbDEX protocol. It should not be considered complete or final. It represents a proposed design for public comment.”

If you have any suggestions, contact TBD via Twitter or send them a pull request on GitHub.

Featured Image: tbDEX diagram from the whitepaper | Charts by TradingView

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Source: https://www.newsbtc.com/news/bitcoin/jack-dorseys-tbd-presents-whitepaper-for-decentralized-bitcoin-exchange/

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Highly Anticipated Bitcoin Upgrade Taproot Activates — Taproot Script-Spends Seen in the Wild

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Bitcoin advocates are celebrating the successful implementation of the Taproot upgrade after block height 709,632. The upgrade was highly anticipated as it was one of the biggest changes since the introduction of Segregated Witness (Segwit) in 2017. After the upgrade was completed, the Bitcoin community discussed the slew of benefits Taproot and Schnorr signatures have to offer and have started measuring Taproot usage as well.

Taproot Has Been Activated on the Bitcoin Blockchain

At 12:15 a.m. (EST) at block height 709,632, at difficulty period 352, Taproot was officially activated on the Bitcoin (BTC) blockchain. The upgrade was long-awaited as it’s an improvement that’s taken seven years to complete.

Taproot allows users to operate Bitcoin scripts in a myriad of ways in order to improve privacy, scalability, and security. Combining Taproot with an improvement called Schnorr signatures allows for more compact transactions and key aggregation, which provides a multi-faceted array of multi-signature transaction schemes. Schnorr offers three major benefits according to the codebase introduction on Github:

  • Provable security: Schnorr signatures are provably secure. In more detail, they are strongly unforgeable under chosen message attack (SUF-CMA).
  • Non-malleability: The SUF-CMA security of Schnorr signatures implies that they are non-malleable. On the other hand, ECDSA signatures are inherently malleable.
  • Linearity: Schnorr signatures provide a simple and efficient method that enables multiple collaborating parties to produce a signature that is valid for the sum of their public keys.

The collaboration technique or key aggregation “is the building block for various higher-level constructions that improve efficiency and privacy, such as multi-signatures and others,” the Github description adds.

The Schnorr signature scheme is combined with MAST (Merklized Alternative Script Tree), which essentially creates a new script language called Tapscript. The Taproot activation page on Github now says: “Taproot locked-in. Thanks miners.” After Taproot was activated a great number of crypto supporters discussed the implementation on social media.

“The Taproot upgrade for Bitcoin has officially [been] activated,” bitcoin investor Anthony Pompliano tweeted after the upgrade. “Congratulations and thank you to every developer, miner, and Bitcoiner who made this happen.” Another individual dubbed ‘Hashoveride’ tweeted:

Taproot activated! Bitcoin upgraded! This is how consensus is formed and upgrades are done! Incredibly slow, non-controversial, and not forced. Y’all better recognise. [Bitcoin] ready to fly.

Bitcoin Developer Pieter Wuille: ‘At Long Last, BIP341/342 (“Taproot”) Are Active on Bitcoin Mainnet’

Bitcoin Core developer Pieter Wuille also discussed the successful soft fork on Twitter and thanked all the network participants.

“At long last, BIP341/342 (“taproot”) are active on Bitcoin mainnet. Thanks to everyone involved for getting us this far,” Wuille tweeted. “The real work will be in building wallets/protocols that build on top of it to make use of its advantages. I’m very excited to see where that takes us,” the Bitcoin developer added. Other bitcoin fans shared data of Taproot being used in the wild. For instance, Alekos Filini wrote:

A modified version @bitcoindevkit made this transaction. It’s a Taproot script-spend with a 1-of-2 multisig that uses the new `OP_CHECKSIGADD.` It looks like this is the first ever `OP_CHECKSIGADD` used on Bitcoin! It’s the third Taproot script-spend in the block, but the two coming in before didn’t use that opcode.

Additionally, the blockchain analysis Open Exploration Tool (oxt.me) tweeted about Taproot usage on the Bitcoin blockchain after the successful implementation. “It’s happening #Taproot,” the oxt.me Twitter account said, sharing a Taproot usage chart. Bitcoiner Lyle Pratt also talked about the benefits of Taproot and explained why he was excited.

Highly Anticipated Bitcoin Upgrade Taproot Activates — Taproot Script-Spends Seen in the Wild
Transactions tool measuring Taproot usage on the Bitcoin blockchain. Chart shared by Open Exploration Tool (oxt.me) on November 14, 2021.

“[Three] reasons I’m personally excited about Taproot,” Pratt wrote. “1) the upgrade process gave us a good recipe for future upgrades. 2) taproot will help proliferate new DLCs services and use cases, eventually bringing them to Lightning. 3) 1 mil+ participant multisig federations are now possible.”

When asked by another individual what the benefits of federated multi-sig for many participants would be, Pratt responded by noting: “Much more decentralized pools of signers or oracles are now possible. Pre-taproot about ~15 p2sh signers was the practical limit.”

What do you think about the successful implementation of the Bitcoin upgrade Taproot and the community’s opinion about the latest soft fork? Let us know what you think about this subject in the comments section below.

Tags in this story
709632, Alekos Filini, Anthony Pompliano, Bitcoin, Bitcoin (BTC), Bitcoin network, bitcoindevkit, block height 709632, BTC network, Codebase, future upgrades, github, key aggregation, Linearity, Non-malleability, oxt.me, oxt.me Taproot use, Pieter Wuille, Provable security, Schnorr Signatures, Taproot, Taproot script-spend, technology, Upgrade

Image Credits: Shutterstock, Pixabay, Wiki Commons, OXT.me,

Disclaimer: This article is for informational purposes only. It is not a direct offer or solicitation of an offer to buy or sell, or a recommendation or endorsement of any products, services, or companies. Bitcoin.com does not provide investment, tax, legal, or accounting advice. Neither the company nor the author is responsible, directly or indirectly, for any damage or loss caused or alleged to be caused by or in connection with the use of or reliance on any content, goods or services mentioned in this article.

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Source: https://news.bitcoin.com/highly-anticipated-bitcoin-upgrade-taproot-activates-taproot-script-spends-seen-in-the-wild/

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While Musk Mentions Doge Improvements, Dogecoin Developers Continue to Address Scaling Concerns

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On Sunday, Elon Musk discussed his relationship with the Dogecoin Foundation and he mentioned a few improvements he’d like to see implemented via Dogecoin Core’s codebase. Meanwhile, Github metrics show developers have been working on Dogecoin Core during the last few months and it seems Dogecoin software engineers are prepping the network to address fees, transaction time, and mining.

Dogecoin Proponents Including Elon Musk Patiently Wait for a fee Change Fix, Dogecoin Core Repo Has Been Active

At the end of June, Tesla’s CEO Elon Musk tweeted about the fee change proposal added to the Dogecoin Core Github repository. At the time, Musk said it was “important to support” it. The following week, people noticed that Dogecoin software developers Ross Nicoll and Patrick Lodder were maintaining the project and looking to add Musk’s suggestions. Lodder’s Dogecoin Core fee change proposal explained that the fix would be “gradually deployed to the network over multiple software releases.”

While Musk Mentions Doge Improvements, Dogecoin Developers Continue to Address Scaling Concerns
Patrick Lodder’s original fee policy proposal submitted at the end of June.

Ever since then, there’s been a lot more action happening in the Dogecoin Core Github repo. 1000x.group metrics from the “Number of Developers Working on Specific Crypto Projects” tracker show that between August 2017 to January 2021, Dogecoin network development was a ghost town. In February 2021, 16 software engineers were working on the project, in May there were three developers. 1000x.group statistics show that 12 software developers contributed to Dogecoin Core in August.

Last Dogecoin Release ‘Part of a Two-Stage Update to Lower the Fee Recommendation’

Looking at Dogecoin Core’s Github repo indicates that Ross Nicoll and Patrick Lodder are still very active. Lodder dropped the release Dogecoin Core 1.14.4 on August 20, 2021.

While Musk Mentions Doge Improvements, Dogecoin Developers Continue to Address Scaling Concerns

Lodder’s description of the 1.14.4 software notes that the release prepares the network for a reduction of the recommended fees. The action would reduce the “default fee requirement 1000x for transaction relay and 100x for mining.”

“At the same time, it increases freedom for miner, wallet, and node operators to agree on fees regardless of defaults coded into the Dogecoin Core software by solidifying fine-grained controls for operators to deviate from built-in defaults,” the Dogecoin Core 1.14.4 release notes written by Lodder explain. “This realizes the first part of a two-stage update to lower the fee recommendation – a follow-up release will implement the lower fee recommendation, once the network has adapted to the relay defaults introduced with this version of Dogecoin Core.”

While Musk Mentions Doge Improvements, Dogecoin Developers Continue to Address Scaling Concerns
Dogecoin development ratio over time.

In the Twitter thread with the Tesla CEO Elon Musk, the individual mentioned “NFT integrations” that looked “promising.” But many others agreed with Musk who was more interested in “lowering fees, decreasing block time & increasing block size.” Dogecoin’s co-creator Billy Markus agreed with Musk as well. “Yeah… IMO dogecoin being fast, scalable, and inexpensive to send around is all it needs to be, it doesn’t need to be yet another blockchain that hosts NFTs or other tokens or whatever,” Markus said. Tesla’s CEO agreed with the Dogecoin co-founder and replied with a 100% emoji.

From the looks of it, Dogecoin Core developers are preparing to address Musk’s scaling concerns. The Dogecoin community has supported Musk’s scaling idea for quite some time but almost once a week someone asks: “when will Dogecoin transaction fees drop?”

What do you think about Elon Musk’s Dogecoin network scaling concerns and the recent Dogecoin Core development? Let us know what you think about this subject in the comments section below.

Tags in this story
1000x Group, Block Size, block times, Codebase, data, Development, Dogecoin Core, Dogecoin Core Devs, Dogecoin Devs, Dogecoin NFTs, Elon Musk, elon musk doge, elon musk dogecoin, elon musk dogecoin foundation, Fees, github, Github Repo, metrics, Patrick Lodder, Ross Nicoll, Tesla, Tesla CEO

Image Credits: Shutterstock, Pixabay, Wiki Commons, 1000x.group, Github,

Disclaimer: This article is for informational purposes only. It is not a direct offer or solicitation of an offer to buy or sell, or a recommendation or endorsement of any products, services, or companies. Bitcoin.com does not provide investment, tax, legal, or accounting advice. Neither the company nor the author is responsible, directly or indirectly, for any damage or loss caused or alleged to be caused by or in connection with the use of or reliance on any content, goods or services mentioned in this article.

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Source: https://news.bitcoin.com/while-musk-mentions-doge-improvements-dogecoin-developers-continue-to-address-scaling-concerns/

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